Advertising revenues are being farmed using thousands of short videos with presenters who only appear to be human.
The unlawful distribution of copyrighted content consumes almost a quarter of all internet bandwidth. Comms providers should automate the discovery of piracy on their networks.
Mobdro was believed to have been the most downloaded pirate streaming app in the world.
EUR1.9mn was made by pirates using a Swiss company to sell devices that connected to video servers in several European countries.
The US-led operation prompted arrests in the USA and Cyprus, whilst an alleged Norwegian conspirator remains at large.
Over 200 servers were seized on the same day by authorities in several European countries.
Rightsholders will lose the ability to manually claim payment for unintended use of their music, but they can still block the videos.
The Australian public enquiry is the first of its kind, so will likely influence decisions made by other authorities around the world.
The Finnish Market Court ruled that the ISP need not make payments to a collection society because their IPTV streams are original broadcasts, not retransmissions of over-the-air TV.
Creators of digital archives are likely to suffer heavier penalties if they use content in a way that the owners find upsetting.